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6 Grammar Points Explained Simply!

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Present perfect continuous

Use the Present Perfect Continuous when you’re interested in the activity.

Affirmative: S + have / has + been + v-ing + O/C : I have been going to a pottery class.

Negative: S + have / has + not + been + v-ing + O / C : I have not been going to a pottery class.

Question: Wh-word + have / has + S + been + v-ing + O / C? : Where have you been going to?

               Have / Has + S + been + v-ing + O / C? : Have you been going to a pottery class?


Present perfect

Use the present perfect when you’re interested in the result.

Affirmative: S + have / has + Past Participle (v3) + O /C : I have made 8 vases.

Negative: S + have / has + not + Past Participle (v3) + O / C : I have not made 8 vases.

Questions: Have / has + S + PP (v3) + O / C? : Have you made 8 vases?

                 Wh-word + have / has + S + PP (v3) + O / C? : What have you made?


Reported Questions

  • Generally the order becomes Subject + Verb 
  • The question turns into a statement. Use a “.” instead of “?”
  • The verb tense changes the same way it changes in reported statements. 

Simple Present:Is your father a doctor?” 

Simple Past: He asked me if my father was a doctor. 

  • Note the use of if / whether when reporting Yes / No questions 
  • With direct questions with “WH-words”, we do not use helping verbs: do, does, did 

Simple past: “ Where did you go?”

Past Perfect: He asked me where I had gone.


Simple past 

(action verbs) 

Use: finished action in the past.

Affirmative: 

  • Regular S + V-ed + O / C : I peeled a banana
  • Irregular S + V2 + O / C : I ate a banana

Negative: 

  • S + didn’t + V-base + O / C : I didn’t eat a banana

Question: 

  • Yes / No: Did + S + V-base + O / C ? : Did you eat a banana?
  • Wh-: Wh-word + did + S + V-base + O / C : Why did you eat a banana?

 


Simple Past 

(verb to-be)

Affirmative: 

  • I, he, she, it + was + o / c : I was home. 
  • They, you, we + were + o / c : They were at school.

Negative: 

  • S + was / were + not + O / C : We weren’t in San Francisco 

Question: 

  • Yes / No: Was / were + S + O / C ? Were you home?
  • Wh-Q : Wh-word + was / were + S + O / C? Where was she?

Past Continuous

Use: Continuing action in the past (longer actions) 

Affirmative: 

  • I, she, he, it + was + V-ing + O / C : She was drinking water 
  • We, you, they + were + V – ing + O / C : Were were eating bananas

Negative: 

  • S + was / were + V – ing + O / C : He was not eating a banana

Questions: 

  • Yes / No: Was / were + S + O / C : Were you eating a banana?
  • Wh-Q: Wh-word + was / were + S + O / C? : Why were you eating a banana?

 

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